United States History Studies Since 1877
(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one unit of credit for successful completion of this course.
(1) In United States History Studies Since 1877, which is the second part of a two-year study that begins in Grade 8, students study the history of the United States from 1877 to the present. The course content is based on the founding documents of the U.S. government, which provide a framework for its heritage. Historical content focuses on the political, economic, and social events and issues related to industrialization and urbanization, major wars, domestic and foreign policies, and reform movements, including civil rights. Students examine the impact of geographic factors on major events and eras and analyze their causes and effects. Students examine the impact of constitutional issues on American society, evaluate the dynamic relationship of the three branches of the federal government, and analyze efforts to expand the democratic process. Students describe the relationship between the arts and popular culture and the times during which they were created. Students analyze the impact of technological innovations on American life. Students use critical-thinking skills and a variety of primary and secondary source material to explain and apply different methods that historians use to understand and interpret the past, including multiple points of view and historical context.
(2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as biographies, autobiographies, landmark cases of the U.S. Supreme Court, novels, speeches, letters, diaries, poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Motivating resources are available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.
(3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the social studies skills strand in subsection (c) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together. Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.
(4) Students identify the role of the U.S. free enterprise system within the parameters of this course and understand that this system may also be referenced as capitalism or the free market system.
(5) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(h).
(6) Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.
(7) State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances, including Celebrate Freedom Week.
(A) Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under the TEC, §29.907, or during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The study of the Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the formulation of the U.S. Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation Proclamation and the women's suffrage movement.
(B) Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of instruction prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, students in Grades 3-12 study and recite the following text: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."
(8) Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents.(c) Knowledge and skills.
(1) History. The student understands the principles included in the Celebrate Freedom Week program. The student is expected to:(A) analyze and evaluate the text, intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, and identify the full text of the first three paragraphs of the Declaration of Independence;
(B) analyze and evaluate the application of these founding principles to historical events in U.S. history; and(C) explain the contributions of the Founding Fathers such as Benjamin Rush, John Hancock, John Jay, John Witherspoon, John Peter Muhlenberg, Charles Carroll, and Jonathan Trumbull Sr.(2) History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history from 1877 to the present. The student is expected to:
(A) identify the major characteristics that define an historical era;
(B) identify the major eras in U.S. history from 1877 to the present and describe their defining characteristics;
(C) apply absolute and relative chronology through the sequencing of significant individuals, events, and time periods; and
(D) explain the significance of the following years as turning points: 1898 (Spanish-American War), 1914-1918 (World War I), 1929 (the Great Depression begins), 1939-1945 (World War II), 1957 (Sputnik launch ignites U.S.-Soviet space race), 1968-1969 (Martin Luther King Jr. assassination and U.S. lands on the moon), 1991 (Cold War ends), 2001 (terrorist attacks on World Trade Center and the Pentagon), and 2008 (election of first black president, Barack Obama).
(3) History. The student understands the political, economic, and social changes in the United States from 1877 to 1898. The student is expected to:
(A) analyze political issues such as Indian policies, the growth of political machines, civil service reform, and the beginnings of Populism;
(B) analyze economic issues such as industrialization, the growth of railroads, the growth of labor unions, farm issues, the cattle industry boom, the rise of entrepreneurship, free enterprise, and the pros and cons of big business;
(C) analyze social issues affecting women, minorities, children, immigrants, urbanization, the Social Gospel, and philanthropy of industrialists; and
(D) describe the optimism of the many immigrants who sought a better life in America.
(4) History. The student understands the emergence of the United States as a world power between 1898 and 1920. The student is expected to:
(A) explain why significant events, policies, and individuals such as the Spanish-American War, U.S. expansionism, Henry Cabot Lodge, Alfred Thayer Mahan, Theodore Roosevelt, Sanford B. Dole, and missionaries moved the United States into the position of a world power;
(B) evaluate American expansionism, including acquisitions such as Guam, Hawaii, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico;
(C) identify the causes of World War I and reasons for U.S. entry;
(D) understand the contributions of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) led by General John J. Pershing;
(E) analyze the impact of significant technological innovations in World War I such as machine guns, airplanes, tanks, poison gas, and trench warfare that resulted in the stalemate on the Western Front;
(F) analyze major issues such as isolationism and neutrality raised by U.S. involvement in World War I, Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, and the Treaty of Versailles; and
(G) analyze significant events such as the Battle of Argonne Forest.
(5) History. The student understands the effects of reform and third-party movements in the early 20th century. The student is expected to:
(A) evaluate the impact of Progressive Era reforms, including initiative, referendum, recall, and the passage of the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th amendments;
(B) evaluate the impact of muckrakers and reform leaders such as Upton Sinclair, Susan B. Anthony, Ida B. Wells, and W. E. B. DuBois on American society; and
(C) evaluate the impact of third parties, including the Populist and Progressive parties.
(6) History. The student understands significant events, social issues, and individuals of the 1920s. The student is expected to:
(A) analyze causes and effects of events and social issues such as immigration, Social Darwinism, eugenics, race relations, nativism, the Red Scare, Prohibition, and the changing role of women; and
(B) analyze the impact of significant individuals such as Clarence Darrow, William Jennings Bryan, Henry Ford, Glenn Curtiss, Marcus Garvey, and Charles A. Lindbergh.
(7) History. The student understands the domestic and international impact of U.S. participation in World War II. The student is expected to:
(A) identify reasons for U.S. involvement in World War II, including Italian, German, and Japanese dictatorships and their aggression, especially the attack on Pearl Harbor;
(B) evaluate the domestic and international leadership of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Truman during World War II, including the U.S. relationship with its allies and domestic industry's rapid mobilization for the war effort;
(C) analyze the function of the U.S. Office of War Information;
(D) analyze major issues of World War II, including the Holocaust; the internment of German, Italian, and Japanese Americans and Executive Order 9066; and the development of conventional and atomic weapons;
(E) analyze major military events of World War II, including the Battle of Midway, the U.S. military advancement through the Pacific Islands, the Bataan Death March, the invasion of Normandy, fighting the war on multiple fronts, and the liberation of concentration camps;
(F) evaluate the military contributions of leaders during World War II, including Omar Bradley, Dwight Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur, Chester A. Nimitz, George Marshall, and George Patton; and
(G) explain the home front and how American patriotism inspired exceptional actions by citizens and military personnel, including high levels of military enlistment; volunteerism; the purchase of war bonds; Victory Gardens; the bravery and contributions of the Tuskegee Airmen, the Flying Tigers, and the Navajo Code Talkers; and opportunities and obstacles for women and ethnic minorities.
(8) History. The student understands the impact of significant national and international decisions and conflicts in the Cold War on the United States. The student is expected to:
(A) describe U.S. responses to Soviet aggression after World War II, including the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Berlin airlift, and John F. Kennedy's role in the Cuban Missile Crisis;
(B) describe how Cold War tensions were intensified by the arms race, the space race, McCarthyism, and the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), the findings of which were confirmed by the Venona Papers;
(C) explain reasons and outcomes for U.S. involvement in the Korean War and its relationship to the containment policy;
(D) explain reasons and outcomes for U.S. involvement in foreign countries and their relationship to the Domino Theory, including the Vietnam War;
(E) analyze the major issues and events of the Vietnam War such as the Tet Offensive, the escalation of forces, Vietnamization, and the fall of Saigon; and
(F) describe the responses to the Vietnam War such as the draft, the 26th Amendment, the role of the media, the credibility gap, the silent majority, and the anti-war movement.
(9) History. The student understands the impact of the American civil rights movement. The student is expected to:
(A) trace the historical development of the civil rights movement in the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries, including the 13th, 14th, 15th, and 19th amendments;
(B) describe the roles of political organizations that promoted civil rights, including ones from African American, Chicano, American Indian, women's, and other civil rights movements;
(C) identify the roles of significant leaders who supported various rights movements, including Martin Luther King Jr., Cesar Chavez, Rosa Parks, Hector P. Garcia, and Betty Friedan;
(D) compare and contrast the approach taken by some civil rights groups such as the Black Panthers with the nonviolent approach of Martin Luther King Jr.;
(E) discuss the impact of the writings of Martin Luther King Jr. such as his "I Have a Dream" speech and "Letter from Birmingham Jail" on the civil rights movement;
(F) describe presidential actions and congressional votes to address minority rights in the United States, including desegregation of the armed forces, the Civil Rights acts of 1957 and 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965;
(G) describe the role of individuals such as governors George Wallace, Orval Faubus, and Lester Maddox and groups, including the Congressional bloc of southern Democrats, that sought to maintain the status quo;
(H) evaluate changes and events in the United States that have resulted from the civil rights movement, including increased participation of minorities in the political process; and
(I) describe how litigation such as the landmark cases of Brown v. Board of Education, Mendez v. Westminster, Hernandez v. Texas, Delgado v. Bastrop I.S.D., Edgewood I.S.D. v. Kirby, and Sweatt v. Painter played a role in protecting the rights of the minority during the civil rights movement.
(10) History. The student understands the impact of political, economic, and social factors in the U.S. role in the world from the 1970s through 1990. The student is expected to:
(A) describe Richard M. Nixon's leadership in the normalization of relations with China and the policy of détente;
(B) describe Ronald Reagan's leadership in domestic and international policies, including Reaganomics and Peace Through Strength;
(C) compare the impact of energy on the American way of life over time;
(D) describe U.S. involvement in the Middle East such as support for Israel, the Camp David Accords, the Iran-Contra Affair, Marines in Lebanon, and the Iran Hostage Crisis;
(E) describe the causes and key organizations and individuals of the conservative resurgence of the 1980s and 1990s, including Phyllis Schlafly, the Contract with America, the Heritage Foundation, the Moral Majority, and the National Rifle Association; and
(F) describe significant societal issues of this time period.
(11) History. The student understands the emerging political, economic, and social issues of the United States from the 1990s into the 21st century. The student is expected to:
(A) describe U.S. involvement in world affairs, including the end of the Cold War, the Persian Gulf War, the Balkans Crisis, 9/11, and the global War on Terror;
(B) identify significant social and political advocacy organizations, leaders, and issues across the political spectrum;
(C) evaluate efforts by global organizations to undermine U.S. sovereignty through the use of treaties;
(D) analyze the impact of third parties on presidential elections;
(E) discuss the historical significance of the 2008 presidential election; and
(F) discuss the solvency of long-term entitlement programs such as Social Security and Medicare.
(12) Geography. The student understands the impact of geographic factors on major events. The student is expected to:
(A) analyze the impact of physical and human geographic factors on the settlement of the Great Plains, the Klondike Gold Rush, the Panama Canal, the Dust Bowl, and the levee failure in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina; and
(B) identify and explain reasons for changes in political boundaries such as those resulting from statehood and international conflicts.
(13) Geography. The student understands the causes and effects of migration and immigration on American society. The student is expected to:
(A) analyze the causes and effects of changing demographic patterns resulting from migration within the United States, including western expansion, rural to urban, the Great Migration, and the Rust Belt to the Sun Belt; and
(B) analyze the causes and effects of changing demographic patterns resulting from legal and illegal immigration to the United States.
(14) Geography. The student understands the relationship between population growth and modernization on the physical environment. The student is expected to:
(A) identify the effects of population growth and distribution on the physical environment;
(B) identify the roles of governmental entities and private citizens in managing the environment such as the establishment of the National Park System, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Endangered Species Act; and
(C) understand the effects of governmental actions on individuals, industries, and communities, including the impact on Fifth Amendment property rights.
(15) Economics. The student understands domestic and foreign issues related to U.S. economic growth from the 1870s to 1920. The student is expected to:
(A) describe how the economic impact of the Transcontinental Railroad and the Homestead Act contributed to the close of the frontier in the late 19th century;
(B) describe the changing relationship between the federal government and private business, including the costs and benefits of laissez-faire, anti-trust acts, the Interstate Commerce Act, and the Pure Food and Drug Act;
(C) explain how foreign policies affected economic issues such as the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, the Open Door Policy, Dollar Diplomacy, and immigration quotas;
(D) describe the economic effects of international military conflicts, including the Spanish-American War and World War I, on the United States; and
(E) describe the emergence of monetary policy in the United States, including the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 and the shifting trend from a gold standard to fiat money.
(16) Economics. The student understands significant economic developments between World War I and World War II. The student is expected to:
(A) analyze causes of economic growth and prosperity in the 1920s, including Warren Harding's Return to Normalcy, reduced taxes, and increased production efficiencies;
(B) identify the causes of the Great Depression, including the impact of tariffs on world trade, stock market speculation, bank failures, and the monetary policy of the Federal Reserve System;
(C) analyze the effects of the Great Depression on the U.S. economy and society such as widespread unemployment and deportation and repatriation of people of European and Mexican heritage and others;
(D) compare the New Deal policies and its opponents' approaches to resolving the economic effects of the Great Depression; and
(E) describe how various New Deal agencies and programs, including the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and the Social Security Administration, continue to affect the lives of U.S. citizens.
(17) Economics. The student understands the economic effects of World War II and the Cold War. The student is expected to:
(A) describe the economic effects of World War II on the home front such as the end of the Great Depression, rationing, and increased opportunity for women and minority employment;
(B) identify the causes of prosperity in the 1950s, including the Baby Boom and the impact of the GI Bill (Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944), and the effects of prosperity in the 1950s such as increased consumption and the growth of agriculture and business;
(C) describe the economic impact of defense spending on the business cycle and education priorities from 1945 to the 1990s;
(D) identify actions of government and the private sector such as the Great Society, affirmative action, and Title IX to create economic opportunities for citizens and analyze the unintended consequences of each; and
(E) describe the dynamic relationship between U.S. international trade policies and the U.S. free enterprise system such as the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) oil embargo, the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
(18) Economics. The student understands the economic effects of increased worldwide interdependence as the United States enters the 21st century. The student is expected to:
(A) discuss the role of American entrepreneurs such as Bill Gates, Sam Walton, Estée Lauder, Robert Johnson, Lionel Sosa, and millions of small business entrepreneurs who achieved the American dream; and
(B) identify the impact of international events, multinational corporations, government policies, and individuals on the 21st century economy.
(19) Government. The student understands changes over time in the role of government. The student is expected to:
(A) evaluate the impact of New Deal legislation on the historical roles of state and federal government;
(B) explain constitutional issues raised by federal government policy changes during times of significant events, including World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, the 1960s, and 9/11;
(C) describe the effects of political scandals, including Teapot Dome, Watergate, and Bill Clinton's impeachment, on the views of U.S. citizens concerning trust in the federal government and its leaders;
(D) discuss the role of contemporary government legislation in the private and public sectors such as the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, USA PATRIOT Act of 2001, and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; and
(E) evaluate the pros and cons of U.S. participation in international organizations and treaties.
(20) Government. The student understands the changing relationships among the three branches of the federal government. The student is expected to:
(A) describe the impact of events such as the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution and the War Powers Act on the relationship between the legislative and executive branches of government; and
(B) evaluate the impact of relationships among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government, including Franklin D. Roosevelt's attempt to increase the number of U.S. Supreme Court justices and the presidential election of 2000.
(21) Government. The student understands the impact of constitutional issues on American society. The student is expected to:
(A) analyze the effects of landmark U.S. Supreme Court decisions, including Brown v. Board of Education, and other U.S. Supreme Court decisions such as Plessy v. Ferguson, Hernandez v. Texas, Tinker v. Des Moines, Wisconsin v. Yoder, and White v. Regester;
(B) discuss historical reasons why the constitution has been amended; and
(C) evaluate constitutional change in terms of strict construction versus judicial interpretation.
(22) Citizenship. The student understands the concept of American exceptionalism. The student is expected to:
(A) discuss Alexis de Tocqueville's five values crucial to America's success as a constitutional republic: liberty, egalitarianism, individualism, populism, and laissez-faire;
(B) describe how the American values identified by Alexis de Tocqueville are different and unique from those of other nations; and
(C) describe U.S. citizens as people from numerous places throughout the world who hold a common bond in standing for certain self-evident truths.
(23) Citizenship. The student understands efforts to expand the democratic process. The student is expected to:
(A) identify and analyze methods of expanding the right to participate in the democratic process, including lobbying, non-violent protesting, litigation, and amendments to the U.S. Constitution;
(B) evaluate various means of achieving equality of political rights, including the 19th, 24th, and 26th amendments and congressional acts such as the American Indian Citizenship Act of 1924; and
(C) explain how participation in the democratic process reflects our national ethos, patriotism, and civic responsibility as well as our progress to build a "more perfect union."
(24) Citizenship. The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
(A) describe qualities of effective leadership; and
(B) evaluate the contributions of significant political and social leaders in the United States such as Andrew Carnegie, Thurgood Marshall, Billy Graham, Barry Goldwater, Sandra Day O'Connor, and Hillary Clinton.
(25) Culture. The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student is expected to:
(A) describe how the characteristics and issues in U.S. history have been reflected in various genres of art, music, film, and literature;
(B) describe both the positive and negative impacts of significant examples of cultural movements in art, music, and literature such as Tin Pan Alley, the Harlem Renaissance, the Beat Generation, rock and roll, the Chicano Mural Movement, and country and western music on American society;
(C) identify the impact of popular American culture on the rest of the world over time; and
(D) analyze the global diffusion of American culture through the entertainment industry via various media.
(26) Culture. The student understands how people from various groups contribute to our national identity. The student is expected to:
(A) explain actions taken by people to expand economic opportunities and political rights, including those for racial, ethnic, and religious minorities as well as women, in American society;
(B) discuss the Americanization movement to assimilate immigrants and American Indians into American culture;
(C) explain how the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, gender, and religious groups shape American culture;
(D) identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women such as Frances Willard, Jane Addams, Eleanor Roosevelt, Dolores Huerta, Sonia Sotomayor, and Oprah Winfrey to American society;
(E) discuss the meaning and historical significance of the mottos "E Pluribus Unum" and "In God We Trust"; and
(F) discuss the importance of congressional Medal of Honor recipients, including individuals of all races and genders such as Vernon J. Baker, Alvin York, and Roy Benavidez.
(27) Science, technology, and society. The student understands the impact of science, technology, and the free enterprise system on the economic development of the United States. The student is expected to:
(A) explain the effects of scientific discoveries and technological innovations such as electric power, telephone and satellite communications, petroleum-based products, steel production, and computers on the economic development of the United States;
(B) explain how specific needs result in scientific discoveries and technological innovations in agriculture, the military, and medicine, including vaccines; and
(C) understand the impact of technological and management innovations and their applications in the workplace and the resulting productivity enhancements for business and labor such as assembly line manufacturing, time-study analysis, robotics, computer management, and just-in-time inventory management.
(28) Science, technology, and society. The student understands the influence of scientific discoveries, technological innovations, and the free enterprise system on the standard of living in the United States. The student is expected to:
(A) analyze how scientific discoveries, technological innovations, and the application of these by the free enterprise system, including those in transportation and communication, improve the standard of living in the United States;
(B) explain how space technology and exploration improve the quality of life; and
(C) understand how the free enterprise system drives technological innovation and its application in the marketplace such as cell phones, inexpensive personal computers, and global positioning products.
(29) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:
(A) use a variety of both primary and secondary valid sources to acquire information and to analyze and answer historical questions;
(B) analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing and contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations, making predictions, drawing inferences, and drawing conclusions;
(C) understand how historians interpret the past (historiography) and how their interpretations of history may change over time;
(D) use the process of historical inquiry to research, interpret, and use multiple types of sources of evidence;
(E) evaluate the validity of a source based on language, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author, including points of view, frames of reference, and historical context;
(F) identify bias in written, oral, and visual material;
(G) identify and support with historical evidence a point of view on a social studies issue or event; and
(H) use appropriate skills to analyze and interpret social studies information such as maps, graphs, presentations, speeches, lectures, and political cartoons.
(30) Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
(A) create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information;
(B) use correct social studies terminology to explain historical concepts; and
(C) use different forms of media to convey information, including written to visual and statistical to written or visual, using available computer software as appropriate.
(31) Social studies skills. The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
(A) create thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of the United States; and
(B) pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, charts, and available databases.
(32) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:
(A) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and
(B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.